and Analgesic Techniques
North Am Exotic Anim Pract 4:1-18 Jan'01 Review Article 62 Refs. Sheilah
A. Robertson, BVMS, PhD. Dept of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, University
of Florida, PO Box 100136, Gainsville, FL 32610-0136 USA
In recent years, there has been a great increase in our understanding
of pain mechanisms and our awareness of pain in small animals. Despite
increased knowledge, many animals still go undertreated or untreated.
Small exotic animals are a unique group of patients, and can prove challenging
for the practitioner concerned with their welfare. This article reviews
the process of nociception and how one can intervene in the pain pathway.
Newer analgesic drugs are discussed, along with some novel administration
techniques that can be adapted for small mammals. Ketamine has been regarded
primarily as a chemical restraining agent, but new information reveals
that it may have an important place in pain management.
Pain in Exotic Animals
Exotic DVM 3:21-26 Jul'01 Proceedings 9 Refs. Teresa Bradley,
DVM. Belton Animal Clinic, 511
Main Street, Belton, MO 64012
Managing pain in animals of all species has become an integral part
of providing optimal medical and surgical care. Veterinarians who care
for exotic animals must be aware of the need for pain management in those
animals, especially for prey species. There are many reasons why analgesia
is often not provided or thought of as primary treatment for exotic species
and this paper is presented to shed some light on some of those concerns.
Amphibian and Reptile Analgesia
Vet Clin North Am Exotic Anim Pract 4:19-33 Jan'01 Review Article
100 Refs. Karen L. Machin,
DVM, MSc. Dept of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, Western College
of Veterinary Medicine, 52 Campus Dr., University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon,
Saskatchewan, S7N 5B4, Canada
Ability to detect a painful stimulus and take appropriate action
is important for the survival of any species. Fish, amphibians, and reptiles
have appropriate neurologic components and display the appropriate behavioral
responses to a painful stimulus. The presence of an endogenous opioid
system in lower vertebrates suggests evolution of antinociception throughout
vertebrate phylogeny. Analgesics should be provided to lower pain in vertebrates
undergoing a procedure. Evidence of analgesia, some clinical indices of
pain, and dosages of analgesics supported by experimental studies and
anecdotal dosages are given.
management of the exotic animal patient.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract 5:183-212 2002 Jan 101 Refs.
Careful postoperative management is crucial for the success of any
orthopedic surgical repair. The special needs of the exotic animal must
be met during the immediate postoperative period and during hospitalization.
Many exotic animals require a quiet, stress-free environment and careful
attention to housing parameters, such as perching, temperature, and visual
security. To provide adequate pain relief in these patients, analgesia
should be given before, during, and after surgery. The drugs most often
used for pain relief are NSAIDs and opioid analgesics. After surgery,
monitor the healing process carefully with regular examinations and radiographs
while remaining vigilant for potential problems such as osteomyelitis
or nonunion. Physical therapy prevents the development of fracture disease,
which includes joint or ligament contracture and bone or muscle mass loss.
Because physical therapy affords the patient full use of the affected
limb, it is considered a helpful practice in all patients. Physical therapy,
however, is critical for free-ranging exotic animals that will be released
back into the wild, such as birds of prey.
of Medetomidine, Clove Oil and Propofol for Anesthesia of Leopard Frogs,
J Herpe Med Surg 11:13-18 Winter'01 Clinical Trial 37
Refs. *Maud Lafortune, DMV, MSc, Mark A. Mitchell, DVM, MS, PhD, Julie
A. Smith, DVM, DACVA. *Zoological Medicine Resident, Veterinary Medical
Teaching Hospital, College of Veterinary Medicine, PO Box 100126, Gainesville,
FL 32610-0126, USA
The clinical effects of medetomidine, clove oil and propofol were
evaluated in 36 clinically healthy leopard frogs, Rana pipiens. Under
controlled laboratory conditions, heart and respiratory rates were measured
at defined intervals during each trial. Corneal, superficial and deep
pain withdrawal and righting reflexes were evaluated over time following
a single drug administration. Medetomidine (150 pg/kg) failed to produce
clinically apparent sedation in any of the frogs (n = 12) despite a reduction
in respiratory rate. Immersion in a clove oil (eugenol) bath (310 - 318
mg/L for 15 min) induced surgical anesthesia in all frogs (n = 12). However,
the duration of anesthesia was variable, ranging from less than 5 min
to 65 min. Gastric prolapse was a common side effect of clove oil anesthesia
(50%, 6/12) but the significance of this effect is unclear. Propofol (10
mg/kg) injected perivascularly in the sublingual plexus area induced sedation
in all frogs (n = 12) and light anesthesia in 58% (7/12). Propofol at
this dose and by this route failed to induce surgical anesthesia in any
of the frogs. These findings suggest that medetomidine is unsuitable as
a sole anesthetic agent, propofol may be useful as a sedative, and clove
oil may be used as a surgical anesthetic in the leopard frog.